Monday, 28 November 2011

The Legacy of Umar-Ibn-Al-Khattab (RA) - The second Caliph of Islam




The following post is copied from a facebook page , "I Own Pakistan" 

https://www.facebook.com/IOwnPakistan

In the year 23/644 Umar (R.A) was assassinated by Abu Lua’Lua the Magian, who had a personal grudge against Umar. The assassin stabbed Umar in the back & in his side below the belt with a poisoned dagger during the morning prayers.

Umar appointed the office of Khalifah to one of six ( Uthman, Ali, Talha bin Ubiduallah, Zubair bin al-Awam, Abd ar-Rahman bin Awaf, and Saad bin Abi Waqas) to be chosen in three days. 

He made sure that his son would not get the office but made him one of the consultants. 

His Khilafah was for a total of 10 years, 6 months & 4 days.

Here is some of his major achievements in list form.

Establishment of Public Treasury.
Establishments of courts of Justice and appointment of Judges.
Placing the reserve army on the state’s Payroll and organization of the War department.
Establishment of Postal service.
Establishment of the Land Revenue department.
Survey and assessment of lands.
Public census.
Punishment of those who practice Monopoly by exile to different lands.
Establishment of and use of Jails.
Building of Canals and Bridges.
First to use the Whip.
Establishment of Public Rest Areas, hostels and Wudu (Ablution) Stations.
Fixing the date to the Start of the Migration of the Messenger.
Dividing the state and the conquered territories into provinces.
Founding of new cities (al-Amsar) such as Kufah , Basarah and Fustat.
Zakat on Produce of the sea, such as fish, Lobster, shrimp etc., and appointment of a responsible official.
Use of secret reports and specially designated emissaries to provide first reports as what is really going on in different provinces.
Salary for Imams, Muadhans (Callers to prayer) teachers and public lectures.
Stipends for the poor among the Jews and Christians who lived in conquered lands.
Punishment for drunkenness, written satires and lampoons.
Establishment of Guilds for certain trades.
Prohibition of the mention of women’s names in poetry.
Holding tarawih (Ramadan night prayers) in congregation, before his time it was done individually.
Providing lighting in the Mosques at night.
Persuading Abu Bakr to collect the Qur’an in one book.
Establishment of Military bases at strategic points in the different provinces.
Establishment of the Police department.
Personally making nightly rounds to check on the condition of the people first hand.
Formulation of the Principal of Qiyas (Analogical Reasoning.) for determining rulings on newly encountered matters in Fiqh (Jurisprudence.)
Establishment of a more exact system of calculation of the inheritance.
Limiting the relationship between Muslims and Non-Muslims.
Establishing a stable for the lost camels.
State intervention to control the price of merchandise.
First to enlarge the al-Haram (the Sacred Mosque) at Mecca. First to place a cover on the Kaaba.
Discovered the place of Isra, Ascension of the Messenger to heavens at Jerusalem.

Conquests of Umar (RA)

In the lifetime of Umar (R.A) following conquests were completed:

Fall of Damasucus in 14/635
Fall of Fahl in 14/635
Fall of Hims in 14/635
Fall of Balbak and Basrah
Fall Ublah and the bridge of Abi Ubydiah in Najran in 14 /635
Fall of Yarmouk in 15/636
Fall of all of the Jordan except of Tabarias in 15 /635

The Battle of Yarmouk in 15 / 635
The Battle of Qadisyah in 15 /636,

In 16/637

Battle of Jaljulah and Qansreen
Fall of Ahoz
Fall of Madain
Fall of Jerusalem in 16/637
Fall of Jazirah in 16/637

In 17/638

Fall of Hims again in 17/638
Fall of Hurmuz in 17/637

In 18/638

The City of Kufah is built in 18/639
The great Plague of Amwas, Abu Ubydaih bin al-Jarah dies and many Muslim soliders.

In 19/640

Fall of Qaisariah in 19/640
Battle of Sohab in 19 /640
Fall of Takrit in 19/640
An Army is sent Aremina in 19/640

In 20 /641

Fall of Egypt in 20 /641
Fall of North Africa
Fall of Alexandria in 21/642
Fall of Nahwind in 21/641
Fall of Khorasan in 21/641
Fall of Antioch and Qalqalyia Pecefuly.
Fall of Adharbaijan in 22 /642
Fall of Masbithan in 22/642
Fall of Hamathan in 22 /642
Fall of Tabaristan in 22 /643
Fall of Armenia in 22 /643
Fall of Jarjan in 22/643
Fall of Koos and Raiy in 22/643
Fall of Tripoli (North Africa) in 22/643
Fall of Fars in 23/644
Fall of Kirman in 23/644
Fall of Sajastan in 23/644
Fall of Makran in 23/644

Fall of Khurasan (including Khawarazm, Farghanah, Takharistan) in 23/644

2 comments:

  1. Thank you so much for sharing all of the good info! I am looking forward to checking out more posts!

    ReplyDelete